SEE ALSO: Subject Guides
Sources of data above: Newark Census Statistics
Newark Timeline [Mayoral elections are listed starting in 1884]
1666 Newark founded
1680 First African Americans in region
1818 African Society of Newark founded.
1822 Clinton AME Zion church founded.
1830 The census records 16 slaves and 648 free blacks in Newark.
1852 First public colored school founded.
1870 34% of Newark’s population was born in a different country.
1870s Italian immigrants begin arriving. The number of Italians in Newark peaks between 1910 and 1960 when numbers of those born in Italy are always above 20,000 (see census data above).
1883 Newark Evening News established.
1884 Joseph Haynes becomes Mayor. B’Nai Abraham Synagogue has first services in new building on Washington Street. The Newark News calls the Italian quarters “breeders of disease and death”.
1886 The Newark Sunday Call writes about “increasing numbers” of Italian immigrants.
1890 Current building of First Baptist Peddie Church is dedicated.
1894 Julius Lebkuecher becomes Mayor.
1896 James Seymour becomes Mayor.
1901 Current library building opens. “Colored shriners” hold mass meeting on Market Street. Hahne’s new building (current Whole Foods) opens.
1902 Beth Israel Hospital officially opens.
1907 Jacob Haussling becomes Mayor. Current Essex County Courthouse building is completed.
1910 Start of first Great Migration. Census data shows African Americans jumped from about 3% of the population in 1910 to almost 9% in 1930. In 1917 the Newark News reports on “Negro influx”. High Street fire kills 27.
1911 This map shows nationalities in Newark at this time.
1912 Newark hosts Industrial Exposition. Statue of George Washington in Washington park unveiled. Mostly Jewish students in Morton Street School (second article) and Charlton Street School (page 8 of link, second link), go on strike perhaps partially due to anti-Semitism from teachers, one of whom said “Jewish children should be back in Central America where they belonged.”. L. Bamberger & Co. store opens.
1914 Judge agrees that Eastman Kodak infringed upon the patents of Hannibal Goodwin for making flexible roll film. Goodwin invented this process at the Plume House in Newark. The Newark Star reports “Newark is the leading German city” in New Jersey and “the Yiddish…is destined to take a leading place in the populations of the larger cities of New Jersey”.
1916 Newark celebrates its 250th anniversary. Thomas Drew is arrested in Newark (articles: 1, 2, 3, 4). The Newark News writes that Prince Street in the Third Ward is “the market street of the Jewish people of Newark” and “there are many sleeping rooms in the Third Ward into which the sun never looks…there are tenements in the Third Ward where both sexes crowd together.” The Newarker asserts “there are a goodly number of worthy colored folk in Newark…they probably wish to participate in our (250th anniversary) celebration…with such a mellifluous lot of musical colored folk and a carload of watyahmiluns the firmanent over Newark will be crowded with angels on the nights when they vocally jubilate” which William Maxwell asserts in the Newark News and Star is “an unpardonable slur and insult to every Negro in Newark”.
1917 America enters World War One. Essex County Urban League is founded. Charles Gillen becomes Mayor. In July the Newark News states that despite an “influx of the negro”, there is “no Negro problem here”, with a judge stating, “there is not the slightlest proof of any increase in crime or disorder since the city received its share of the Negro immigration from the South.” Newark News reports on a “race riot” over a dice game in September. Chinese Nationalists open Chinese library in March (pg 10 of link).
1918 On November 4, suffragists hold a 24 hour rally in Military Park.
1921 Alexander Archibald becomes Mayor. LS Plaut’s advertises clothing as “nigger brown” (as far back as this ad in 1919 prompting an objection from William Ashby of the Urban League and this response from Plaut.
1922 Frederick Briedenbach becomes Mayor upon Archibald’s death.
1925 Thomas Raymond becomes Mayor a second time.
1928 Jerome Congleton becomes Mayor.
1930 Newark’s population peaks at over 442,000, according to census data.
1933 Meyer Ellenstein becomes Newark’s only Jewish mayor.
1935 The Newark Sunday Call states “Mohammed’s followers include 1800 members of cult in Newark”.
1938 Newark Housing Authority established.
1940 The Newark News claims there are “more than 1200 Mohammadeans in Newark”. Start of Second Great Migration. Census data shows African Americans jumped from about 11% of the population in 1940 to 34% in 1960.
1941 America enters World War II. Vincent Murphy becomes Mayor.
1944 The YMCA writes this report on “The Newark Interracial Situation”
1948 A Jewish publication estimates almost 57000 Jews in Newark.
1949 Ralph A. Villani becomes Mayor.
1950s Large waves of Puerto Ricans began to come to Newark
1955 Clinton Hill Neighborhood Council founded.
1960s Samuel Berg Photographs show Newark during this period.
1960s Large number of Cuban immigrants: under 1,000 Cuban-born residents in 1950, 7,000 by 1970
1961 ASPIRA is founded.
1963 Business and Industrial Coordinating Council (BICC) is founded.
1966 Tri City Peoples Organization for Progress is founded.
1970 First African American Mayor:Kenneth Gibson elected
1973 Newark’s first councilwoman-at-large Marie Villani appointed (reelected 1974).
1974 First annual Black Film Festival.
1975 El Club Del Barrio is founded.
1976 This report on the Hispanic community was written.
1986 Second African American Mayor: Sharpe James elected
1987 Greater Newark HUD Tenants Coalition is founded.
1990s Large number of Brazilian , Ecuadorian and Dominican Republic immigrants. Numbers of Newark residents born in these countries at least triple between 1990 and 2010.
1994 Newark’s first African American Councilwoman elected: Mildred Crump.
2006 Cory Booker elected Mayor
2013 Luis Quintana becomes first Hispanic Mayor (Interim).
2014 Ras Baraka elected Mayor
2016 In the latest census estimates new groups of immigrants continue to arrive with almost 80,000 residents born in other countries, over 9,000 people born in Africa, over 4,000 born in Asia, over 9,000 born in Europe, and over 55,000 born in Latin America. Populations like those from the Dominican Republic also continue to increase contributing to Newark’s over 55,000 residents born in Latin America.